The District Courts of India are
authorized by a judge. They govern justice in India at a district level.
These courts are under governmental and judicial control of the High Court
of the State to which the district concerned belongs. In each district, the
highest court is that of the District and Sessions Judge. This is the
principal court of civil jurisdiction. District courts are also court of
Sessions. Sessions-tribal cases are tried by the Sessions Court. It has the
power to impose any sentence including capital punishment. There is a three
tier system of courts. On the civil side, at the lowest level is the court
of Civil Judge (Junior Division). On criminal side the lowest court is that
of the Judicial Magistrate. Civil Judge (Junior Division) decides civil
cases of small economic stake. Judicial Magistrates decide criminal cases
which are punishable with imprisonment of up to five years.
There are many courts that are subordinate to the court of
District and Sessions Judge. There is the Court of Civil Judge (Senior
Division) on the civil side and the Court of the Chief Judicial Magistrate
on the Criminal side who are found at the middle of the hierarchy. Civil
Judge (senior division) can decide civil cases of any valuation. There are
many additional courts of Additional Civil Judge (senior division). The
Jurisdiction of these addition courts is the same as that of the principal
court of Civil Judge (Senior Division). The Chief Judicial Magistrate can
try cases which are punishable with imprisonment for a term up to seven
years. Usually there are many additional courts of Additional Chief Judicial
Magistrates. At the top level there may be one or more courts of additional
district and session judge with the same judicial power as that of the
District and Sessions judge.
Judicial independence of each District courts of India is the
characteristic feature of the district judiciary. In each district there is
a strong bar which ensures that courts decide cases according to law and
without fear or favor.